There is what is given, offered and sacrificed,
This line seams to ignore the opposites – taken, received and held – although these should be considered to be at least implied otherwise the precept against stealing (as example) would not be needed.
What is given offered and sacrificed are objects of possession (time, money, and objects such as a vase, chair, or tool), and even purpose of these objects. So even though fair use is applicable to things under copyright, it could also be applied to other things, use of things for their purpose in an appropriate manner.
there are results for skilful and unskilful actions,
Kamma will be dealt with directly at another time, so here I will be limiting the scope to the conventional acts.
How we act or use things in society are based upon social norms, in particular the first four precepts of
- I take upon myself the precept for abstaining from Intentionally causing living beings to die.
- I take upon myself the precept for abstaining from Thievery.
- I take upon myself the precept for abstaining from misconduct based on sensual desire.
- I take upon myself the precept for abstaining from False Speech.
Although to link back to the last aspect, this statement about action also points out how we use things, if we use things in an improper manner or re-purpose them in an unsuitable way (i.e. to break precepts) we are in one sense denying the first statement, or that certain purposes an object has is by the nature of the purpose antithetical to the practice (such as weaponry)
there is this world and the world beyond,
This statement is bringing into focus that the results of kamma are not always immediate, they may take time to ripen and bear fruit (vipaka). From one standpoint it means there are further lives through rebirth, and yet from another that there is a future past and present, and that not everything is in the here and now.
there are mothers, fathers, and spontaneously born beings.
This statement is furthering the last by describing rebirth, the mothers egg, the fathers semen, the consciousness entering the womb. Although the Teaching of Anatta (not-self) is ultimately true, due to processes at play, this does not mean that there are no beings or objects, only that they are not worth taking personally.
With another perspective this statement widens the scope to other people, and social roles are not always the same as the biological role, everyone can demonstrate archetypal features of the mother and father, as-well as the other roles of friend, partner, or enemy.
There are also recluses and brahmins who have traversed the upright path until complete perfection, so by their own efforts, realizing this world and the world beyond, can declare it.
This final statement brings the end goal of the practice into focus, saying that although there are these “truths” these can be transcended through correct practice, and in an ultimate sense escaped from, and pointing out that they still act within the world.
1 The Buddhas teachings on conventional reality are called sammatidesanā, and the depiction of Upright Perspective used
here is one such case.
2 There is a difference between motivation and intention. A motivation is the reason why an action is done, and intention is
the preforming of the act itself.
3 Intention (cetana) is the Buddhas definition of kamma.